Venice and the Ottoman Empire: Crash Course World History #19

In which John Green discusses the strange and mutually beneficial relationship between a republic, the citystate of Venice, and an Empire, the Ottomans–and how studying history can help you to be a better boyfriend and/or girlfriend. Together, the Ottoman Empire and Venice grew wealthy by facilitating trade: The Venetians had ships and nautical expertise; the Ottomans had access to many of the most valuable goods in the world, especially pepper and grain. Working together across cultural and religious divides, they both become very rich, and the Ottomans became one of the most powerful political entities in the world. We also discuss how economic realities can overcome religious and political differences (in this case between Muslims and Christians), the doges of Venice, the sultans of the Ottoman empire, the janissaries and so-called slave aristocracy of the Ottoman Empire, and how money and knowledge from the Islamic world helped fuel and fund the European Renaissance. Also, there’s a They Might Be Giants joke.

If you really want to read about Ottoman eunuchs (warning: it’s explicit), here you go: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eunuch#Ottoman_Empire

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Population Genetics: When Darwin Met Mendel – Crash Course Biology #18

Hank talks about population genetics, which helps to explain the evolution of populations over time by combing the principles of Mendel and Darwin, and by means of the Hardy-Weinberg equation.

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References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2HbN

Table of Contents:

1. Population Genetics 1:05
2. Population 1:14
3. Allele Frequency 1:41
4. 5 Factors 1:58
a) Natural Selection 2:12
b) Natural Selection/Random Mating 2:27
c) Mutation 3:18
d) Genetic Drift 3:49
e) Gene Flow 4:05

5. Hardy-Weinberg Principle 4:45
6. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 5:15
7. Hardy-Weinberg Equation 6:18

gregor mendel, heredity, genetics, charles darwin, natural selection, evolution, offspring, population genetics, species, population, generation, allele frequency, allele, selective pressure, sexual selection, non-random mating, preferred traits, fitness, mutation, DNA, genetic drift, chance, gene flow, immigration, emigration, godfrey hardy, wilhelm weinberg, hardy-weinberg equation, hardy-weinberg equilibrium, phenotype, genotype, earwax, mendelian trait, homozygous, heterozygous, evolutionary biology

This video contains the following sound from Freesound.org:

“LucasGonze-HomestyleMandolin-17.aiff” by lucasgonze

Int’l Commerce, Snorkeling Camels, and The Indian Ocean Trade: Crash Course World History #18

In which John Green teaches you the history of the Indian Ocean Trade. John weaves a tale of swashbuckling adventure, replete with trade in books, ivory, and timber. Along the way, John manages to cover advances in seafaring technology, just how the monsoons work, and there’s even a disembowelment for you Fangoria fans.

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Evolutionary Development: Chicken Teeth – Crash Course Biology #17

Hank introduces us to the relatively new field of evolutionary developmental biology, which compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine their ancestral relationship, and to discover how those processes evolved. Also fruit flies with eyes on their legs and chickens with teeth!

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References for this episode can be found in the Google document here:

Table of Contents
1) EVO/DEVO – 00:51
2) Developmental Regulatory Genes – 2:00
3) Gap Genes – 2:39
4) Homeobox / HOX Genes – 2:50
5) Messed-Up Experiment – 6:16
6) EVO/DEVO & Evolution – 7:26
a) Chickens with teeth – 8:14

evolutionary developmental biology, biology, evo-devo, evolution, animal, organism, genetics, science, crashcourse, developmental regulatory genes, gap genes, homeobox genes, hox genes, instructions, hierarchy, bill mcginnis, junk DNA, gene products, embryo, switzerland, fruit fly, scientist, mutation, gene expression, chicken, teeth

CrashCourse Biology Outtakes with Hank Green

Hank makes mistakes.

Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17

Mongols T-Shirt: http://dftba.com/product/10g/CrashCourse-Mongols-Shirt

In which John Green teaches you, at long last, about the most exceptional bunch of empire-building nomads in the history of the world, the Mongols! How did the Mongols go from being a relatively small band of herders who occasionally engaged in some light hunting-gathering to being one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world? It turns out Genghis Khan was a pretty big part of it, but you probably already knew that. The more interesting questions might be, what kind of rulers were they, and what effect did their empire have on the world we know today? Find out, as John FINALLY teaches you about the Mongols.

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Animal Development: We’re Just Tubes – Crash Course Biology #16

Hank discusses the process by which organisms grow and develop, maintaining that, in the end, we’re all just tubes.

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Table of Contents
1) Zygote 2:38
2) Morula 2:53
3) Blastula 3:25
4) Radial Symmetry 4:11
5) Bilateral Symmetry 4:26
6) Gastrulation 4:52
7) Blastopore 5:02
8) Gastrula 5:17
9) Protostomes & Deuterostomes 5:33
10) Germ Layers 6:22
a) Diploblastic 6:32
b) Triploblastic 6:44
11) Biolography 7:27

References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://bit.ly/IS8lMi

animal development, biology, science, crashcourse, animal, classification, phylum, embryo, multi-cellular, sea sponge, symmetry, organs, cells, complexity, tube, life form, tissue, jellyfish, coral, sperm, egg, zygote, morula, blastula, mouth, anus, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, digestive tract, gastrulation, gastrula, protostome, deuterostome, chordate, vertebrate, ectoderm, endoderm, germ layer, mesoderm, ernst haeckel, recapitulation theory, ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, embryology, developmental biology

Mansa Musa and Islam in Africa: Crash Course World History #16

In which John Green teaches you about Sub-Saharan Africa! So, what exactly was going on there? It turns out, it was a lot of trade, converting to Islam, visits from Ibn Battuta, trade, beautiful women, trade, some impressive architecture, and several empires. John not only cover the the West African Malian Empire, which is the one Mansa Musa ruled, but he discusses the Ghana Empire, and even gets over to East Africa as well to discuss the trade-based city-states of Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Zanzibar. In addition to all this, John considers emigrating to Canada.

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Hanging Out at Crash Course HQ

Hank and John spend an hour together hanging out live and answering viewer questions. Only a couple of technical problems. 🙂

Crash Course World History Outtakes

In which John is a dirty dirty boy. Hilarious.