The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or…Which Was It?: Crash Course World History #10

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In which John Green explores exactly when Rome went from being the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. Here’s a hint: it had something to do with Julius Caesar, but maybe less than you think. Find out how Caesar came to rule the empire, what led to him getting stabbed 23 times on the floor of the senate, and what happened in the scramble for power after his assassination. John covers Rome’s transition from city-state to dominant force in the Mediterranean in less than 12 minutes. Well, Rome’s expansion took hundreds of years, he just explains it in under 12 minutes. The senate, the people, Rome, the caesarian section, the Julian calendar and our old friend Pompey all make appearances, but NOT the Caesar Salad, as Julius had nothing to do with it.

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Heredity: Crash Course Biology #9

Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness.

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This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the REFERENCES for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2dlR

tags: crashcourse, science, biology, evolution, genetics, heredity, aristotle, bloodlines, gregor mendel, mendelian genetics, mendelian trait, classical genetics, chromosome, gene, polygenic, pleiotropic, allele, ear wax gene, somatic, diploid, gametes, sperm, egg, haploid, polyploid, dominance, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype, punnett square, reginald c. punnett, sex-linked inheritance, autosome

The Silk Road and Ancient Trade: Crash Course World History #9

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The Silk Road and Ancient Trade: In which John Green teaches you about the so-called Silk Road, a network of trade routes where goods such as ivory, silver, iron, wine, and yes, silk were exchanged across the ancient world, from China to the West. Along with all these consumer goods, things like disease and ideas made the trip as well. As is his custom, John ties the Silk Road to modern life, and the ways that we get our stuff today.

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Resources:

Life Along the Silk Road by Susan Whitfield: http://dft.ba/-lifesilk

The Silk Road: 2000 Years in the Heart of Asia: http://dft.ba/-2000years

Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8

Hank explains the extremely complex series of reactions whereby plants feed themselves on sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and also create some by products we’re pretty fond of as well.

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This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-29ai

Table of Contents:

1) Water 1:16

2) Carbon Dioxide 1:32

3) Sunlight/Photons 1:43

4) Chloroplasts 1:57

5) Light Reaction/Light-Dependent 2:42

a. Photosystem II 3:33

b. Cytochrome Complex 5:54

c. ATP Synthase 6:16

d. Photosystem I 7:06

6) Dark Reactions/Light-Independent 7:55

a. Phase 1 – Carbon Fixation 8:50

b. Phase 2 – Reduction 11:31

c. Phase 3 – Regeneration 12:02

tags: photosynthesis, biology, science, crashcourse, plants, light, calvin cycle, respiration, water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, xylem, time lapse, stomata, chlorophyll, photon, plastid, chloroplast, oxygen, thylakoid, grana, lumen, stroma, chemistry, fusion, photoexcitation, photosystem II, electron transport chain, protein, cytochrome complex, carbon fixation, rubisco, phosphoglycolate, reduction, regeneration, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, G3P, glucose, cellulose, starch, life

Alexander the Great and the Situation … the Great? Crash Course World History #8

In which you are introduced to the life and accomplishments of Alexander the Great, his empire, his horse Bucephalus, the empires that came after him, and the idea of Greatness. Is greatness a question of accomplishment, of impact, or are people great because the rest of us decide they’re great?

Also discussed are Kim Kardashian and the Situation, gender bias in history, Catherine the Great’s death (not via horse love), the ardent love other generals–from Pompey the Great to Napoleon–had for Alexander, a bit of Persian history.

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ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7

In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the “economy” of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy in the form of ATP.

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Special thanks go to Stafford Fitness (www.staffordfitness.net) for allowing us to shoot the gym scenes in their facilities.

This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this episode, in the Google Document here: http://dft.ba/-25Ad

Table of Contents:

1) Cellular Respiration 01:00

2) Adenosine Triphosphate 01:29

3) Glycolysis 4:13

A) Pyruvate Molecules 5:00

B) Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation 5:33

C) Aerobic Respiration 6:45

4) Krebs Cycle 7:06

A) Acetyl COA 7:38

B) Oxaloacetic Acid 8:21

C) Biolography: Hans Krebs 8:37

D) NAD/FAD 9:48

5) Electron Transport Chain 10:55

6) Check the Math 12:33

TAGS: crashcourse, biology, science, chemistry, energy, atp, adenosine triphosphate, cellular respiration, glucose, adp, hydrolysis, glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain, fermentation, lactic acid, enzyme, hans krebs, citric acid, ATP synthase

‎2,000 Years of Chinese History! The Mandate of Heaven and Confucius: World History #7

2,000 Years of Chinese History! The Mandate of Heaven and Confucius:
Crash Course World History #7

In which John introduces you to quite a lot of Chinese history by
discussing the complicated relationship between the Confucian scholars
who wrote Chinese history and the emperors (and empress) who made it.
Included is a brief introduction to all the dynasties in Chinese
history and an introduction to Confucius and the Confucian emphasis on
filial piety, the role the mandate of heaven played in organizing
China, and how China became the first modern state.

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Plant Cells: Crash Course Biology #6

Hank describes why plants are so freaking amazing – discussing their evolution, and how their cells are both similar to & different from animal cells.

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This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this video, in the Google Document here: http://dft.ba/-22aJ

Table of Contents annotations:

1. Re-watch the whole video 0:00

2. Introduction 0:00

3. Plant Evolution 0:56

4. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells 2:33

5. Cellulose and Lignin 3:58

6. Plastids and Chloroplasts 7:05

7. Central Vacuole 8:10

TAGS: crashcourse, biology, hank green, plants, plantae, chemistry, energy, learn, course, lycophyte, scale tree, carboniferous, angiosperm, eukaryotic, nucleus, prokaryotic, membrane, cytoplasm, organelle, cellulose, lignin, energy, photosynthesis, plastid, chloroplast, central vacuole, turgor pressure