Water and Solutions — for Dirty Laundry: Crash Course Chemistry #7

Dihydrogen monoxide (better know as water) is the key to nearly everything. It falls from the sky, makes up 60% of our bodies, and just about every chemical process related to life takes place with it or in it. Without it, none of the chemical reactions that keep us alive would happen – none of the reactions that sustain any life form on earth would happen – and the majority of inorganic chemical reactions that shape the surface of the earth would not happen either. Every one of us uses water for all kinds of chemistry every day – our body chemistry, our food chemistry and our laundry chemistry all take place in water.
In today’s Crash Course Chemistry, we use Hank’s actual dirty laundry (ew) to learn about some of the properties of water that make it so special – it’s polarity and dielectric property; how electrolytes can be used to classify solutions; and we discover how to calculate a solution’s molarity as well as how to dilute a solution using the dilution equation.

Table of Contents
Polarity 02:40
Dielectric Property 04:13
Electrolytes 04:29
Molarity 08:46
Dilution 10:56

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The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8

In which John Green teaches you about the United States Constitution. During and after the American Revolutionary War, the government of the new country operated under the Articles of Confederation. While these Articles got the young nation through its war with England, they weren’t of much use when it came to running a country. So, the founding fathers decided try their hand at nation-building, and they created the Constitution of the United States, which you may remember as the one that says We The People at the top. John will tell you how the convention came together, some of the compromises that had to be made to pass this thing, and why it’s very lucky that the framers installed a somewhat reasonable process for making changes to the thing. You’ll learn about Shays’ Rebellion, the Federalist Papers, the elite vs rabble dynamic of the houses of congress, and start to find out just what an anti-federalist is.

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Stoichiometry: Chemistry for Massive Creatures – Crash Course Chemistry #6

Chemists need stoichiometry to make the scale of chemistry more understandable – Hank is here to explain why, and to teach us how to use it.

Table of Contents
Atomic Mass Units 2:24
Moles 5:12
Molar Mass 5:59
Equation Balancing 8:45
Molar Ratios 11:11

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References and image licenses for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-51j2

Who Won the American Revolution?: Crash Course US History #7

In which John Green teaches you about the American Revolution. And the Revolutionary War. I know we’ve labored the point here, but they weren’t the same thing. In any case, John will teach you about the major battles of the war, and discuss the strategies on both sides. Everyone is familiar with how this war played out for the Founding Fathers; they got to become the Founding Fathers. But what did the revolution mean to the common people in the United States? For white, property-owning males, it was pretty sweet. They gained rights that were a definite step up from being British Colonial citizens. For everyone else, the short-term gains were not clear. Women’s rights were unaffected, and slaves remained in slavery. As for poor white folks, they remained poor and disenfranchised. The reality is it took a long time for this whole democracy thing to get underway, and the principles of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness weren’t immediately available to all these newly minted Americans.

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The Electron: Crash Course Chemistry #5

Hank brings us the story of the electron and describes how reality is a kind of music, discussing electron shells and orbitals, electron configurations, ionization and electron affinities, and how all these things can be understood via the periodic table.

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Table of Contents
Snobby Scientists 00:43
Great Dane/Bohr Model 01:57
Electrons as Music 04:13
Electron Shells and Orbitals 04:44
Electron Configurations 05:54
Ionization and Electron Affinities 08:17
Periodic Table 10:18

Taxes & Smuggling – Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6

In which John Green teaches you about the roots of the American Revolution. The Revolution did not start on July 4, 1776. The Revolutionary War didn’t start on July 4 either. (as you remember, I’m sure, the Revolution and the Revolutionary War are not the same thing) The shooting started on April 19, 1775, at Lexington and/or Concord, MA. Or the shooting started with the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770. At least we can pin down the Declaration of Independence to July 4, 1776. Except that most of the signers didn’t sign until August 2. The point is that the beginning of the Revolution is very complex and hard to pin down. John will lead you through the bramble of taxes, royal decrees, acts of parliament, colonial responses, and various congresses. We’ll start with the end of the Seven Years War, and the bill that the British ran up fighting the war. This led to taxes on colonial trade, which led to colonists demanding representation, which led to revolution. It all seems very complicated, but Crash Course will get you through it in about 12 minutes.

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The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4

Hank gives us a tour of the most important table ever, including the life story of the obsessive man who championed it, Dmitri Mendeleev. The periodic table of elements is a concise, information-dense catalog of all of the different sorts of atoms in the universe, and it has a wealth of information to tell us if we can learn to read it.

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Table of Contents
Dmitri Mendeleev – 0:45
Mendeleev’s Organization of the Periodic Table – 2:31
Relationships in the Periodic Table – 5:03
Why Mendeleev Stood Out from his Colleagues – 7:09
How the Periodic Table Could be Improved – 8:28

More info. about the cylindrical periodic table of elements: http://www.av8n.com/physics/periodic-table.htm