Archdukes, Cynicism, and World War I: Crash Course World History #36

In which John Green teaches you about the war that was supposed to end all wars. Instead, it solved nothing and set the stage for the world to be back at war just a couple of decades later. As an added bonus, World War I changed the way people look at the world, and normalized cynicism and irony. John will teach you how the assassination of an Austrian Archduke kicked off a new kind of war that involved more nations and more people than any war that came before. New technology like machine guns, airplanes, tanks, and poison gas made the killing more efficient than ever. Trench warfare and modern weapons led to battles in which tens of thousands of soldiers were killed in a day, with no ground gained for either side. World War I washed away the last vestiges of 19th century Romanticism and paved the way for the 20th century modernism that we all know and find to be cold and off-putting. While there may not be much upside to WWI, at least it inspired George M. Cohan to write the awesome song, “Over There.”

Resources:

Over There by George M. Cohan performed by Bill Murray: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbggEGUaE28

The Guns of August by Barbara Tuchman: http://dft.ba/~gunsaugust

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Old & Odd: Archaea, Bacteria & Protists – CrashCourse Biology #35

Hank veers away from human anatomy to teach us about the (mostly) single-celled organisms that make up two of the three taxonomic domains of life, and one of the four kingdoms: Archaea, Bacteria, and Protists. They are by far the most abundant organisms on Earth, and are our oldest, oddest relatives.

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References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-1EvY

Table of Contents
1) Archaea 03:23
a) Methanogens 04:02
b) Extremophiles 04:24

2) Bacteria 05:24:2
3) Gram Positive 06:50
a) Proteobacteria 07:15
b) Cyanobacteria 07:30
c) Spirochetes 07:42
d) Chlamydias 07:52

4) Protists 08:12
a) Protozoa 09:03
b) Algae 09:54
c) Slime Molds 11:13

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Imperialism: Crash Course World History #35

In which John Green teaches you about European Imperialism in the 19th century. European powers started to create colonial empires way back in the 16th century, but businesses really took off in the 19th century, especially in Asia and Africa. During the 1800s, European powers carved out spheres of influence in China, India, and pretty much all of Africa. While all of the major (and some minor) powers in Europe participated in this new imperialism, England was by far the most dominant, once able to claim that the “sun never set on the British Empire.” Also, they went to war for the right to continue to sell opium to the people of China. Twice. John will teach you how these empires managed to leverage the advances of the Industrial Revolution to build vast, wealth-generating empires. As it turns out, improved medicine, steam engines, and better guns were crucial in the 19th century conquests. Also, the willingness to exploit and abuse the people and resources of so-called “primitive” nations was very helpful in the whole enterprise.

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The Reproductive System: How Gonads Go – CrashCourse Biology #34

Hank lets us in on the meaning of life, at least from a biological perspective – it’s reproduction, which answers the essential question of all organisms: how do I make more of myself? So, sex, how does it work?

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Table of Contents
1) Gametes: Ova and Sperm 2:27
2) Sex Determination 4:59
3) Secondary Sexual Characteristics 6:48
4) Female Reproductive Structures 7:25
a) Uterus & Oviducts 7:40
b) Endometrium (Menstruation) 7:57
c) Cervix & Vagina 8:32
5) Male Reproductive Structures 8:45
a) Scrotum, Sminferous Tubules & Epididymas 8:59
b) Penis 9:37
c) Vas Deferens to Eurethra (Emission) 10:13

References
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/281/5385/1979
http://www.medicinenet.com/miscarriage/article.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559814/)
Campbell Biology, 9th ed.

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Samurai, Daimyo, Matthew Perry, and Nationalism: Crash Course World History #34

In which John Green teaches you about Nationalism. Nationalism was everywhere in the 19th century, as people all over the world carved new nation-states out of old empires. Nationalist leaders changed the way people thought of themselves and the places they lived by reinventing education, military service, and the relationship between government and governed. In Japan, the traditional feudal society underwent a long transformation over the course of about 300 years to become a modern nation-state. John follows the course of Japanese history from the emergence of the Tokugawa Shogunate to the Meiji Restoration, and covers Nationalism in many other countries along the way. All this, plus a special guest appearance, plus the return of an old friend on a extra-special episode of Crash Course.

Resources:

A Modern History of Japan by Andrew Gordon http://dft.ba/-GordonJapan

Giving Up the Gun by Noel Perrin http://dft.ba/-PerrinGun

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Great Glands – Your Endocrine System: CrashCourse Biology #33

Hank fills us in on the endocrine system – the system of glands which produce and secrete different types of hormones directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body’s growth, metabolism, and sexual development & function.

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References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-1lsU

Table of Contents
1) Signalling Systems 2:07:0
2) Pituitary 3:19:1
3) Hypothalamus 4:17:1
4) Thyroid 4:52:1
5) Adrenal 5:38:1
6) Pancreas 6:51:1
7) Biolography 8:49:2

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Capitalism and Socialism: Crash Course World History #33

In which John Green teaches you about capitalism and socialism in a way that is sure to please commenters from both sides of the debate. Learn how capitalism arose from the industrial revolution, and then gave rise to socialism. Learn about how we got from the British East India Company to iPhones and consumer culture in just a couple of hundred years. Stops along the way include the rise of industrial capitalism, mass production, disgruntled workers, Karl Marx, and the Socialist Beard. The socialist reactions to the ills of capitalism are covered as well, and John discusses some of the ideas of Karl Marx, and how they’ve been implemented or ignored in various socialist states. Plus, there are robots!

Resources:

The Relentless Revolution by Joyce Appelby: http://dft.ba/-appelby

The Marx-Engels Reader: http://dft.ba/-marxengels

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Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer – Crash Course Biology #32

Hank tells us about the team of deadly ninja assassins that is tasked with protecting our bodies from all the bad guys that want to kill us – also known as our immune system.

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Table of Contents
1) Innate Immune System 1:45
a) Mucous Membranes 2:54
b) Inflammatory Response 3:44
c) Leukocytes 4:45

2) Open Letter 6:33
a) Natural Killer Cells 6:56
b) Dendritic Cells 7:57

3) Acquired Immune System 8:36
a) Antibodies 9:08
b) Lymphocytes 9:48
c) Cell-Mediated Response 10:17
d) Humoral Response 13:00

References
Campbell Biology, 9th ed.
http://faculty.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/AP2pages/Units18to20/blood/white.htm
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_immune_response.html

This video uses the following sounds from Freesound.org:
“Pigs-01.flac” by Erdie
“straw slurp.wav” by dparke4
“Disgusting Slop.wav” by Ighuaran
“Sonar Ping.wav” by digifishmusic
“Swishes.wav” by Pogotron
“swing.mp3” by morgantj

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